The 2012 Kidney Disease: Improving Global Outcomes (KDIGO) Clinical Practice Guideline for Anemia in Chronic Kidney Disease aims to provide guidance on diagnosis, evaluation, management and treatment for all CKD patients (non-dialysis, dialysis, kidney transplant recipients and children) at risk of or with anemia. Guideline development followed an explicit process of evidence review and appraisal. The guideline contains chapters addressing diagnosis and evaluation of anemia in CKD and the use of various therapeutic agents (iron, ESAs and other agents) and red cell transfusion as means of treatment. Treatment approaches are addressed in each chapter and guideline recommendations are based on systematic reviews of relevant trials. Appraisal of the quality of the evidence and the strength of recommendations followed the GRADE approach. Ongoing areas of controversies and limitations of the evidence are discussed and additional suggestions are also provided for future research.