About this Project: In view of the potentially devastating epidemiological consequences of the development of behavioural avoidance strategies within mosquito vector populations, we conduct an in-depth investigation of the potential for this phenomenon to arise within the major malaria vector An. arabiensis in Tanzania, and evaluate its potential impact on the long-term sustainability of vector control measures. Working in four villages within the Kilombero Valley of Tanzania, namely Lupiro, Kidugalo, Minepa and Sagamaganga where malaria transmission is now dominated by An. arabiensis, we conduct detailed entomological investigations. Longitudinal surveillance of mosquito vector behaviours was established over a 5 year period (2011-2016) during which LLIN coverage levels are expected to grow to near 100% to test for the emergence of behavioural shifts in the timing and location of mosquito feeding and resting that may reduce the effectiveness of vector control. In parallel, detailed ecological monitoring is conducted to identify the contribution of environmental factors to variation to these mosquito behaviors (e.g. inside versus outside, early or late evening biting), and evaluate their implications for human exposure risk in different settings.