The Kidney Disease: Improving Global Outcomes (KDIGO) 2017 Clinical Practice Guideline Update for the Diagnosis, Evaluation, Prevention, and Treatment of chronic kidney disease–mineral and bone disorder (CKD-MBD) represents a selective update of the prior guideline published in 2009. This update, along with the 2009 publication, is intended to assist the practitioner caring for adults and children with CKD, those on chronic dialysis therapy, or individuals with a kidney transplant. Specifically, the topic areas for which updated recommendations are issued include diagnosis of bone abnormalities in CKD-MBD; treatment of CKD-MBD by targeting phosphate lowering and calcium maintenance, treatment of abnormalities in parathyroid hormone in CKD-MBD; treatment of bone abnormalities by antiresorptives and other osteoporosis therapies; and evaluation and treatment of kidney transplant bone disease. Development of this guideline update followed an explicit process of evidence review and appraisal. Treatment approaches and guideline recommendations are based on systematic reviews of relevant trials, and appraisal of the quality of the evidence and the strength of recommendations followed the GRADE (Grading of Recommendations Assessment, Development, and Evaluation) approach. Limitations of the evidence are discussed, with areas of future research also presented.