Comprehensive information about the extent to which HAS is practiced in various parts of Tanzania is lacking, although anecdotal evidence suggests that it may be practiced in some communities. Only few small studies have reported on HAS and because of this the magnitude of this practice in various populations in Tanzania remains unknown. This formative research aims to fill this gap by providing better understanding of the meanings of, perception, attitude, practice and motivation for, HAS in the general population and high-risk groups in in selected sites in Dar es Salaam, Morogoro, Mwanza and Tanga regions. The specific objectives of the formative research are to:

    1. Explore the meanings, beliefs and perceptions of HAS (e.g. pleasure, pregnancy, virginity, religion, etc).

    2. Investigate the context within which HAS is practiced. 

    3. Examine gender issues in the context within which HAS is practiced. 

    4. Explore people’s understanding about the link between HAS & HIV transmission. 

    5. Investigate use of protective devices (e.g. male condoms, female condoms, etc) during HAS versus during heterosexual vaginal sex.

    6. Provide recommendation on the design of a larger study and for purpose of informing intervention development and policy.