Acne is a condition in which the pores of the skin become clogged, inflamed, and sometimes infected. These clogged pores can result in blackheads, whiteheads, or pimples. Acne tends to occur in teenagers, but can also occur in adults. 



- Non-Inflammatory Acne

Non-inflammatory acne is characterized by comedones, which can be open or closed. These comedones are more commonly known as whiteheads and blackhead and are generally referred to as different types of pimples.

- Inflammatory Acne

Inflammatory breakouts are a result of P. Acnes bacteria infecting the pore and causing an infection, and can often be more difficult to treat. There are four types of inflammatory acne, sometimes commonly referred to as different pimple types: papules, pustules, nodules, and cysts.


Acne symptoms vary from person to person and can range from mild to severe. They include:

  • Excess oil in the skin
  • Blackheads : If the pore stays open on the surface of your skin, it’s considered an open comedo, also known as a blackhead.
  • Whiteheads: If a pore is not open and covered by a thin layer of skin, sebum and dead skin cells accumulate, resulting in a thick substance that remains stuck under the skin, forming a plug
  • Papules–small pink bumps that may be tender to the touch
  • Pimples–inflamed, pus-filled bumps that may be red at the base (also called "pustules")
  • Nodules–large, painful, solid lumps that are lodged deep within the skin

Cysts–deep, inflamed, pus-filled lumps that can cause pain and scarring


Acne starts in the skin's sebaceous glands, which secrete an oily substance called "sebum." The sebum normally travels from the sebaceous gland to the skin's surface via a tiny hair follicle. But with acne, the sebum becomes trapped, sometimes mixing with dead skin cells and bacteria, causing a clogged pore called a "comedo" (plural: "comedones"). The main causes of acne include changes in levels of male hormones called androgens, increased sebum production , changes inside the hair follicle and bacteria


Diagnosis is done by looking at the skin. This involves examining the face, chest and back for the different types of spot, such as blackheads or sore, red nodules.The number of spots, how painful and inflamed they are will help determine how severe the acne is. This is important in planning treatment.


In general, the goals of acne treatment are to prevent or minimize pimples, and to prevent scarring. Early treatment is best to avoid scarring.Treatment for acne depends on how severe it is. It can take several months of treatment before acne symptoms improve. Acne may require a combination of oral, topical, and surgical treatments (although, most acne does not require surgery). Seek for a professional medical advice.


It can be difficult to prevent acne from occurring, because it can be difficult to control the factors that cause it. There are various preventative measures that may prevent or reduce acne flare-ups. Examples include:

• To prevent the incidence of scarring, never squeeze or pick acne lesions.

• Establish a daily skin-care regimen, which includes cleansing the skin with a soft wash cloth, warm water and an appropriate facial soap at least twice a day.

• Use only oil-free skin and hair care products.

• Avoid scrubbing the skin when cleansing.

• Women should use makeup that is oil-free or labeled "non-comedogenic."

• Always cleanse skin after sweating.

• Wear daily sun protection, since some acne medications may increase the skin's sensitivity to sunlight.


Acne scarring can sometimes develop as a complication of acne. Any type of acne spot can lead to scarring, but it's more common when the most serious types of spots (nodules and cysts) burst and damage nearby skin. Scarring can also occur if you pick or squeeze your spots, so it's important not to do this. Acne can cause significant negative psychological effects.


Risk factors of acne are:

  • Age: Between 12-24 years old
  • Changes in hormone levels, such as during:
    • Puberty
    • Pregnancy
    • Before a menstrual period
  • Stress
  • Certain medications such as androgens
Living with

For most people, acne diminishes over time and tends to disappear during the early twenties. Some people will continue to suffer well into their thirties, forties and beyond.


Self-treatment is typically appropriate for mild acne cases, and can be easily managed and controlled by following a daily skin-care regimen and avoiding factors that may worsen acne flare-ups. Currently, there are a variety of nonprescription skin-care products for the self-treatment of mild-to-moderate cases of acne. These products are available as medicated cleansing bars, liquids, lotions, creams, gels and pads/wipes, and they typically contain at least one of the following ingredients: benzoyl peroxide, salicylic acid, sulfur with or without resorcinol and sulfur with sodium sulfacetamide.